The organic combination of criminals and technological innovation
The threat of intentional disruption of GNSS services is also on the rise, GPS is used to track valuables and flag criminals. This is a tracking device used to deter car thieves. It is used in some countries to measure the journeys of road vehicles in order to charge drivers for miles driven.
Unfortunately, these innovations give criminals an incentive to interfere with GPS services: professional car thieves can continue to steal Ferrari's business by using a combined GSM/GPS jammers to prevent the car's anti-theft system from knowing and reporting the vehicle's location .
This criminal motive, combined with the innovation inherent in human beings, has resulted in a substantial business of manufacturing and distributing GPS jammers. They can be purchased online or built on their own according to plans posted on the internet.
GNSS jamming and spoofing are obviously cases of jamming as they result in performance degradation, misinterpretation or loss of information.
Intentional jamming is designed to overwhelm very weak GNSS signal receivers. In addition to military jammers, strategies such as personal protective equipment (PPD) are often used. These are readily available and cheap, but are banned in most countries.
Damage is usually not a direct consequence of cyber actions. For example, decisions made by a pilot during manual navigation could lead to a collision due to disruption or interference of GNSS signals. Nonetheless, it may be difficult to establish a direct causal relationship between the jamming behavior and the collision, as it is a direct result of the pilot's decision.